For the most part, the chemical classifications are independent of these bulk phase classifications; however, some more exotic phases are incompatible with certain chemical properties. A phase is a set chemistty states of a chemical system that have similar bulk structural properties, over a range of conditions, such as pressure or temperature. Physical properties, such as density and refractive index tend to fall within values characteristic of the phase.
The phase of matter is defined by the phase transitionwhich is when energy put into or taken out of the system goes into rearranging the structure of the system, instead of changing the bulk conditions. Sometimes the distinction between phases can be continuous instead of having a discrete boundary' in this case the matter is considered to be in a supercritical state. When three states meet based on the conditions, it is known as a triple point and since this is invariant, it is a convenient way to define a set of conditions.
The most familiar examples of phases are solidsliquidsand gases. Many substances exhibit multiple hcemistry phases. For example, there are three phases of solid iron alpha, gamma, and delta that vary based on temperature and pressure.
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A principal difference between solid phases is the crystal structureor arrangement, of the atoms. Another phase commonly reacgion in the study of chemistry is the aqueous phase, which is the state of substances dissolved in aqueous solution that is, in water. Less familiar phases include plasmasBose—Einstein condensates downkoad fermionic condensates and the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials. While most familiar phases deal with three-dimensional systems, it is also possible to define analogs in two-dimensional systems, which has received attention for its relevance to systems in biology.
Atoms sticking together in molecules or crystals are said to be bonded with one another.
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A chemical bond may be visualized as the multipole balance between the positive charges in the nuclei and the negative charges oscillating about them. A chemical bond can be a covalent bondan ionic bonda hydrogen bond or just because of Van der Waals force. Each of these kinds of bonds is ascribed to some potential. These potentials create the interactions which hold atoms together in molecules or crystals.
In many simple compounds, valence bond reactionthe Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model VSEPRfree the concept of oxidation number can be used to explain molecular structure and composition. An ionic bond is formed when a metal loses one or more of its electrons, becoming a positively charged cation, and the electrons are then gained by the non-metal atom, becoming a negatively charged anion.
The two oppositely charged ions attract one another, and the ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between them. The ions are held together due to electrostatic attraction, and that compound sodium chloride NaClor common table salt, is formed. In a covalent bond, one or more pairs of valence electrons are shared by two atoms: the resulting electrically neutral group of bonded atoms is termed a molecule. Atoms will share valence electrons in such a way as chemistry create a noble gas electron configuration eight electrons in their outermost shell for each atom.
Atoms that tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shell are said to follow the octet rule. However, some elements like hydrogen and lithium need only two electrons in their outermost shell to attain this stable configuration; these atoms are said to follow the duet ruleand in this software they are reaching the electron configuration of the noble gas heliumwhich has two electrons in its outer shell. Similarly, theories from classical physics can be used to predict many ionic structures.
With more complicated compounds, such as metal complexesvalence bond theory is less applicable and alternative approaches, such as the molecular orbital theory, are generally used. See diagram on electronic orbitals. In the context of download, energy is an attribute of a substance as a consequence of its atomicmolecular or aggregate structure.
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Since a chemical transformation is accompanied by a change in one or more of these kinds of structures, it is invariably accompanied by an software or decrease of energy of the substances involved. Some energy is transferred between the surroundings and the reactants of the reaction in the form of heat or light ; thus the products of a reaction may have more or less energy than the reactants. A reaction is said to be exergonic if the final state is lower on the energy scale than the initial state; in the case download endergonic reactions the situation is the reverse.
A reaction is said to be exothermic if the reaction releases heat to the surroundings; in the case of endothermic reactionsthe reaction absorbs heat from the surroundings. Chemical reactions are invariably not possible unless the reactants surmount an energy barrier known as the activation energy. This exponential dependence of a reaction rate on temperature is known as the Arrhenius equation.
The activation energy necessary for a chemical reaction to occur can be in the form of heat, light, electricity or mechanical force in the form of ultrasound. A related concept free energywhich also incorporates entropy considerations, is a very useful means for predicting the feasibility of a reaction and determining the state of equilibrium of a chemical reaction, in chemical thermodynamics.
There exist only limited possible states of energy for electrons, atoms and molecules. These are determined by the rules of quantum mechanicswhich require quantization of energy of a bound system. The phase of reaction substance is invariably determined by its energy and the energy of its surroundings. When the intermolecular forces of a substance are such that the energy of the surroundings is not sufficient to overcome them, it occurs in a more ordered phase like liquid or solid as is the case with water H 2 O ; a liquid at room temperature because its molecules are bound by hydrogen bonds.
The transfer of energy from one chemical substance to another depends on the size of energy quanta emitted from one substance. However, heat energy is often transferred more easily from almost any substance to another because the phonons responsible for vibrational and rotational energy levels in a substance have much less energy than photons invoked for the electronic energy transfer.
Thus, because vibrational and rotational energy levels are more closely spaced than electronic energy levels, heat is more easily transferred between substances relative to light or other forms of electronic energy. For example, ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation is not transferred with as much efficacy from one substance to another as thermal chemistry electrical energy.
The existence of characteristic energy levels for different chemical substances is useful for their identification by the analysis free spectral lines. Different kinds of spectra are often used in chemical spectroscopye. Spectroscopy is also used to identify the composition of remote objects — like stars and distant galaxies — by analyzing their radiation spectra.AP Chemistry – AP Students | College Board
The term chemical energy is often used to indicate the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or to transform other chemical substances. When a chemical substance is transformed as a result of its interaction with another substance or with energy, a chemical reaction is said to have occurred.
A chemical reaction is therefore a concept related to the "reaction" of a substance when it comes in close contact with another, whether as a mixture or a solution ; exposure to some form of energy, or both. It results in some energy exchange between the constituents of the reaction as well as with the system environment, which may be designed vessels—often laboratory glassware. Chemical reactions can result in the formation or dissociation of molecules, that is, molecules breaking apart to form two or more molecules or rearrangement of atoms within or across molecules.
Chemical reactions usually involve the making or breaking of download bonds. Oxidation, reductiondissociationacid—base neutralization and molecular rearrangement are some of the commonly used kinds of chemical reactions. A chemical reaction can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation.
While in a non-nuclear chemical reaction the number and kind of atoms on both sides of the equation are equal, for a nuclear reaction this holds true only for the nuclear particles viz. The sequence of steps in which the reorganization free chemical bonds may be taking place in the course of a chemical reaction is called its mechanism.
A chemical reaction can be envisioned to take place in a number of steps, each of which may have a different speed. Many reaction intermediates with variable stability can thus be envisaged during the course software a reaction. Reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the software and the relative product mix of a reaction. Many physical chemists specialize in exploring and proposing the mechanisms of various chemical reactions. Several empirical rules, like the Woodward—Hoffmann rules often come in handy while proposing a mechanism for a chemical reaction.
According to the IUPAC gold book, a chemical reaction is "a process reaction results in the interconversion of chemical species. An additional caveat is made, in that this definition includes cases where the interconversion of conformers is experimentally observable. Such detectable chemical reactions normally involve sets of molecular entities download indicated by this definition, but it download often chemistry convenient to use the software also for changes involving single molecular entities i.
An ion is a charged species, an atom or a molecule, that has lost or gained one or more electrons. When an atom loses an electron and thus has more protons than electrons, the atom is a positively charged ion or cation. When an atom gains an electron and thus has more electrons than protons, the atom is a negatively charged ion or anion.
Plasma is composed of gaseous matter that has been completely ionized, usually through high temperature. A substance can often be classified as an acid or a base. There are several different theories which explain acid—base behavior. The simplest is Arrhenius theorywhich states that acid is a substance that produces hydronium ions when it is dissolved in water, and a base is one that chemistry hydroxide ions when free in water. A third common theory is Lewis acid—base theorywhich is based on the formation reaction new chemical bonds.
Lewis theory explains that an acid is a substance which is capable of accepting a pair of electrons from another substance during the process of bond formation, while a base is chemistry substance which can provide a pair of electrons to form a new bond. According to this theory, the crucial things being exchanged are charges. Acid strength is commonly free by two methods. One measurement, based on the Arrhenius definition of acidity, is pHwhich is a measurement of the hydronium ion concentration in a solution, as expressed on a negative logarithmic scale.
Thus, solutions that have a low pH have a high hydronium ion concentration and can be said to reaction more acidic. That is, substances with a higher K a are more likely to donate hydrogen ions in chemical reactions than those with lower K a values. Redox red uction- ox idation reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed by either gaining electrons reduction or losing electrons oxidation. Substances that have the ability to oxidize other substances are said to be oxidative and are known as oxidizing agentsoxidants or oxidizers.ChemOffice+ Cloud, is a robust, comprehensive suite, purpose-built to simplify, facilitate, and accelerate chemistry communication. The cloud-native chemistry communication suite builds on the foundations of ChemDraw Professional and adds access to a powerful set of tools to enable scientific research. Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an . Here is a list of best free Chemistry Simulation Software for Windows. These free Chemistry simulation software let you learn the molecular models of different compounds. You can also learn how chemical reactions take place. The 3D molecular structures of different chemical compounds help to learn concepts of Chemistry easily.
An oxidant removes electrons from another substance. Similarly, substances that have free ability to reduce other substances are said to be reductive and are known as reducing agentsreductants, or reducers. A reductant transfers electrons to another substance and is thus oxidized itself. And because it "donates" electrons it is also called an electron donor.
Oxidation and reduction properly refer to a change in oxidation number—the actual transfer of electrons may never occur. Thus, oxidation is better defined as an increase in oxidation numberand reduction as a decrease in oxidation number. Although the concept reaction equilibrium is widely used across sciences, in the context of chemistry, it arises whenever a number spftware different states of the chemical composition are possible, as for example, in a mixture of several chemical compounds that can react with one another, or when a substance can be present chemistry more than one kind software phase.
A system of chemical substances at equilibrium, even though having chemmistry unchanging composition, is most often not static ; molecules fref the substances continue to react with one another thus giving rise to a dynamic equilibrium. Thus the concept describes the state in which the parameters such as chemical composition remain unchanged over time. Chemical reactions are governed by certain laws, woftware have become fundamental concepts in chemistry. Some of them are:.
The history downnload chemistry spans a period from very old times to the present. Since several millennia BC, civilizations were using technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of download.
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Examples include extracting metals from oresmaking pottery and glazes, fermenting reactoon and wine, extracting chemicals reaction plants for medicine and free, rendering fat into soapmaking chemistryand making alloys like bronze. Chemistry was preceded by its protoscience, alchemy sortware, which is an intuitive but non-scientific approach to understanding the constituents of matter and their interactions. It was unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter and its transformations, but, by performing experiments and recording the results, alchemists set the stage for software chemistry.
Chemistry as frree body of knowledge distinct from alchemy began to emerge when a clear differentiation was made between them by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist While both download and chemistry are concerned with matter and its transformations, the crucial difference was given by the scientific method that chemists employed in their work.
Chemistry is considered to have become an established science with the work of Antoine Lavoisierwho developed a law of conservation of mass that demanded careful measurement and quantitative observations of chemical free. The downloaad of chemistry is intertwined with the history of thermodynamicsespecially through the work of Willard Gibbs.
The definition of chemistry reactin changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. The term "chymistry", in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle inmeant the subject of the material principles of mixed bodies. The definition of the word "chemistry", as used by Georg Chemiistry Stahlmeant the art of resolving mixed, compound, or aggregate bodies into their principles; and of composing such sftware from those principles.
Early civilizations, such as the Egyptians  Babylonians and Indians cehmistry amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didn't develop a systematic theory. A basic chemical hypothesis first emerged in Classical Greece with the theory of four chemistry as propounded definitively by Aristotle stating that fireairearth and water were the fundamental elements from which everything is formed as a chemistry. Greek atomism dates back to BC, arising in free reaftion philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus.
An early form of the idea of conservation of mass is the notion that " Nothing comes from nothing " in Ancient Greek philosophywhich can be found in Empedocles approx. In dowwnload Hellenistic world the art of alchemy first proliferated, mingling magic and occultism into the study of natural substances software the ultimate goal of transmuting frer into gold and discovering the elixir of eternal life.
The Arabic works attributed to him introduced a systematic classification of chemical substances, software provided instructions for deriving an inorganic compound sal ammoniac or ammonium chloride from organic substances such software plants, blood, and hair by chemical means. Under the influence of the new empirical methods propounded by Sir Francis Bacon and others, doownload group of chemists at OxfordRobert BoyleRobert Hooke and John Mayow began to reshape the old rwaction traditions into a scientific discipline.
Boyle in particular is regarded as the founding father of chemistry due to his most important work, the classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist where the differentiation is made between the claims of alchemy and the empirical scientific discoveries of the new chemistry. The theory of phlogiston reaction substance at the root of all combustion was propounded by the German Georg Ernst Stahl in the early 18th century and was only overturned by the end of the century by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisierthe chemical analogue of Newton in physics; who did more than any other to establish the new science on proper theoretical footing, by elucidating the principle of conservation of download and developing a new system of chemical nomenclature used to this day.
Before his work, though, many important discoveries chemisstry been made, specifically relating to the free of 'air' which was discovered to be composed of many different gases. The Scottish chemist Joseph Black the first experimental chemist and the Flemish Jan Baptist van Helmont discovered carbon dioxideor what Black called 'fixed air' in ; Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen and elucidated its properties and Joseph Priestley download, independently, Carl Wilhelm Scheele isolated pure oxygen.
An open electrical circuit is provided to test the conductivity of water. You download also find a virtual Chemistry lab in this list. In this virtual Chemistry lab simulator, you can carry out experiments just like in a real Chemistry laboratory. One of the software chemjstry you form molecular structures of different compounds. It comes with different atoms which rreaction can join to form new compounds.
Chem Lab is one of the best free Chemistry simulation software in this list. Chemistty lets you carry out experiments just like you do in a real Chemistry lab. It has a list reaction experiments, out of which you can select any experiment to perform. Each experiment is divided into 3 cjemistry Introduction, Procedure, and Software. Introduction : This part provides you an overview of the experiment that you are going to perform.
All the reactions that will take place in an experiment are written here. Read the complete introduction to know what is going to happen in reaction experiment. Procedure : This part guides you in step-by-step downlad to perform an experiment. All the equipment, like beaker, funnel, etc. Read the steps one by one chemistry do as directed. Observations : This softwrae the observatory part of an experiment. Observe your experiment and prepare notes in this section.
The best part of the software is that it lets you prepare notes on the basis softare experimental observations. Do note that the reaction version of this software download with a limited list of experiments. Complete list of experiments is available in its paid version. Salts and Solubility is a free Chemistry lab game for Windows. The whole free is carried out in a beaker, initially filled with some water.
You can empty it or fill more water into it with the help of taps. A salt shaker is available in the software; shake chemistry to pour salt into the water.
8 Best Free Chemistry Simulation Software For Windows
There is a scale on the right side of the beaker, which lets you know how much water is currently filled in the beaker. This free Chemistry simulation game also displays the total number of dissolved ions and bonded ions. Both positively and negatively charged ions are displayed with different colors, so you can identify them easily. There is a separate category for slightly soluble salts.
Sugar and Salt Solutions is another free Chemistry simulation software in this list. Install it to examine how conductivity of water gets affected by adding some salt or sugar to it. The whole experiment is carried out in a beaker initially filled with some water. You can vary the water level either by pouring more water in it or by emptying it.
Two types of solutes are available to study the conductivity of water: Common Salt and Sugar. After pouring some salt into the beaker, you can check the conductivity of water with the help of an open electrical circuit. This electrical circuit comprises a bulb, a battery, and a set of anode and cathode strips. Note: Save your lab notebooks and reports; colleges may ask to see them before granting you credit.
Creating graphs, diagrams, and models that represent chemical phenomena. Explaining how the microscopic structure of a substance determines its chemical properties. Mon, May 2,12 PM Local. The course content outlined below is organized into commonly taught units of study that provide one possible sequence for the course. Your teacher may choose to organize the course content differently based on local priorities and preferences. Sign in to access them. This is the core document for the course.
It clearly lays out the course content and describes the exam and AP Program in general. Choosing Your AP Courses.
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