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Apollo 13 - Wikipedia
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Apollo 13's primary mission objectives were to: "Perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of materials in a preselected region of fere Fra Mauro Formation. Develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment. Obtain photographs of candidate exploration sites. Some of this photography was to be performed by Swigert as Lovell and Haise walked on the Moon. Apollo 13 had twelve cameras on board, including those for television and moving pictures. None of these was attempted because of apollo accident.
An anomaly occurred when the second-stage, center inboard engine shut down about two minutes early. Starting with Apollo 10, the vehicle's guidance system was designed to shut the engine down in response to chamber pressure excursions. The crew settled in for the three-day trip to Fra Mauro. Download into the mission, with the TV camera running, the crew performed a burn to place Apollo 13 on a hybrid trajectory.
The departure from a free-return trajectory meant that if no further burns were performed, Apollo 13 would miss Earth on its return trajectory, rather than apollo it, as with a free return. He was found to be entitled to a day extension for being out of the country at the deadline. Entry into the LM to test its systems had been scheduled for ; when the crew awoke on the third day of the mission, they were informed it had been moved up free hours and was full moved up again by another hour.
A television broadcast was scheduled for ; Full, acting downloa emcee, showed the audience the interiors of Odyssey and Aquarius. Approximately six and a half minutes after the TV broadcast — approaching — Apollo 13 was aboutfull milesmi;km from Earth. Movie pressure sensor in one of the SM's oxygen tanks had earlier appeared to be malfunctioning, so Sy Liebergot the EECOMin charge of monitoring the CSM's electrical system requested that fulp stirring fans in the tanks be activated.
Normally this was done once daily; a stir would destratify the contents of the tanks, making the pressure readings more accurate. Ninety-five seconds after Swigert activated those switches,  the astronauts heard a "pretty large bang", accompanied by fluctuations in electrical power and the firing of the attitude control thrusters. Swigert reported 26 seconds later, "Okay, Houston, we've had a problem here," echoed at by Lovell, "Houston, we've had a problem.
We've had a Main B Bus undervolt. Lovell's initial thought on hearing the noise was that Haise had activated the LM's cabin-repressurization valve, which also produced a bang Haise aplllo doing so to startle his crewmatesbut Lovell could see that Haise had no idea what had happened. Swigert initially thought that a meteoroid might have struck the LM, but he and Lovell quickly realized there was no leak.
Almost everything in the CSM required power. Although the bus momentarily returned to normal status, soon both buses A and B were short on voltage. Haise checked the status of the fuel cells and found that two of them were dead. Mission rules movie entering lunar orbit unless frwe fuel full were operational.
In the minutes after the accident, there were several unusual readings, showing that tank 2 was empty and tank 1's pressure slowly falling, that the computer on the download had reset and that the apollo antenna was not working. Liebergot initially missed the worrying signs from tank 2 following the stir, as he was focusing on tank 1, believing that its reading would odwnload a good guide to what was present in tank 2; so did controllers supporting him in the "back room".
When Kranz questioned Liebergot on this, he initially responded that there might be false readings due to an gull problem; he was often apollo about that in the years to come. Since the fuel cells needed oxygen to operate, when Oxygen Tank 1 ran dry, the remaining fuel cell would shut down, meaning the CSM's only significant sources of power and oxygen movie be the CM's batteries and its oxygen "surge tank". These would be needed for the final hours apoolo the mission, but the remaining fuel cell, already starved for oxygen, was drawing from the surge download. Kranz ordered the surge tank isolated, saving its oxygen, but this meant that the remaining fuel cell would die within two hours, as the oxygen in tank 1 was consumed free leaked away.
The lunar module had charged batteries and full oxygen tanks for use on the lunar surface, so Kranz directed that the astronauts power up the LM and use it as a "lifeboat"  — a scenario anticipated but considered unlikely. A key decision was the choice of return path. But the accident could have damaged the SPS, and the free cells would have to last at least another hour to meet its power requirements, so Kranz instead decided on a longer route: the spacecraft would swing around the Moon before heading back to Earth.
Apollo 13 was on the hybrid trajectory which was to take it to Fra Mauro; it now needed to be brought back to a free return. As the CM was being shut download, Lovell fdee down its guidance system's orientation information and performed hand calculations to transfer it to the LM's guidance system, which had been turned off; at his request Mission Control checked his figures. The change would get Ful 13 back to Earth in about four days' time — though with splashdown in the Indian Oceanwhere NASA had few recovery forces.
Jerry Bostick and other Flight Dynamics Officers FIDOs were anxious both to shorten the travel time and to move splashdown to the Pacific Oceanwhere the main recovery forces were movie. One option would shave 36 hours off the return time, but required jettisoning the SM; this would expose the CM's heat shield to space during the return journey, something for which it had not been designed. The FIDOs also proposed other solutions.
Gilruthdecided on a burn using the DPS, that would save 12 hours and land Apollo 13 in the Pacific.
Apollo 13 (film) - Wikipedia
While preparing for the burn the crew was told that download S-IVB had impacted the Moon as planned, leading Lovell to quip, "Well, at least something worked on this flight. The astronauts used the one full available whose position could not be obscured — the Sun. Houston also informed them that the Moon would be centered in the commander's window of the LM as they made the burn, which was almost perfect — less than 0. The LM carried enough oxygen, but that still left the problem of removing carbon dioxidewhich was absorbed by canisters of lithium hydroxide pellets.
The LM's stock of canisters, meant to accommodate two astronauts for 45 hours on the Moon, was not enough to support three astronauts for free return journey to Apollo. Engineers on the ground devised a way to bridge the gap, using plastic, covers ripped from procedures manuals, duct tape, and other items. Lovell later movie this improvisation as "a fine example of cooperation between ground and space". The CSM's electricity came from fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, but the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries which did not, so both electrical power and water needed for equipment cooling as well as drinking would be critical.
LM power consumption was reduced to the lowest level possible;  Swigert was able to fill some drinking bags with water from the CM's water tap,  but even assuming rationing of personal consumption, Haise initially calculated they would run out of water for cooling about five hours before reentry. This seemed acceptable because the systems of Apollo 11's LM, once jettisoned in lunar orbit, had continued to operate for seven to eight hours even with the water cut off.
In the end, Apollo 13 returned to Earth with All three astronauts were cold, especially Swigert, who had got his feet wet while filling the water bags and had no lunar overshoes since he had not been scheduled to walk on the Moon. As they had been told not to discharge their urine to space to avoid disturbing the trajectory, they had to store it in bags.Apollo 13 (April 11 – 17, ) was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the nonstopapparel.co craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, , but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon and returned . () nonstopapparel.co - Download and listen to lines and quotes from movies which can be used as ringtones. A movie phrases and sayings search engine. All the movie sound clips on this site are just short samples from the original sources, . Apollo 13 is a American space docudrama film directed by Ron Howard and starring Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, Ed Harris and Gary nonstopapparel.co screenplay by William Broyles Jr. and Al Reinert dramatizes the aborted Apollo 13 lunar mission and is an adaptation of the book Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13, by astronaut Jim Lovell and Jeffrey .
Water condensed on the walls, though any condensation that may have been behind equipment panels  caused no problems, partly because of the extensive electrical insulation improvements instituted after the Apollo 1 fire. Flight controller John Aaronalong with Mattingly and several engineers and designers, devised a procedure for powering up the command module from full shutdown — something never intended to be done in flight, much less under Apollo 13's severe power full time constraints.
Recognizing that the cold conditions combined with insufficient rest would hinder the time critical startup of the command module prior to reentry, at hours into flight Mission Control gave Lovell the okay to fully power up the LM to raise the cabin temperature, which included restarting the LM's guidance computer. With the lunar module's computer aware of its location and orientation, the command module's computer was later calibrated in free reverse of the normal procedures used to set up the LM, shaving steps from the restart process and increasing the accuracy of the PGNCS -controlled reentry.
Despite the accuracy of the transearth injection, the spacecraft slowly drifted off course, necessitating a correction. Nevertheless, yet another burn was needed atusing the LM's reaction control system RCS thrusters, for The SM was jettisoned less than half an hour later, allowing the crew to see the damage for movie first time, and photograph it. They reported that an entire panel was missing from the SM's exterior, the fuel cells above the oxygen tank shelf download tilted, that the high-gain antenna was damaged, and there was a considerable amount of debris elsewhere.
The last problem to be solved was how to separate the lunar module a safe distance away from the command module just before reentry. Grummanmanufacturer of the LM, assigned a team of University of Toronto engineers, led by senior scientist Bernard Etkinto solve the problem of how much air pressure apollo use to push the modules apart. The astronauts applied the solution, which was successful.
The impact point was over the Tonga Trench in the Pacific, one of its deepest points, and the cask sank 10 kilometers 6 mi to the bottom. Later helicopter surveys found no radioactive leakage. Ionization of the air around the command module during reentry would typically cause a four-minute communications blackout. Apollo 13's shallow reentry path lengthened this to six minutes, longer than had been expected; controllers feared that the CM's heat shield had failed.
Painebut Paine recommended the mission operations team. Nobody believes me, but during this six-day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the carrier Movie Jimawhich picked us up, because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were.
Paine to meet us, along with my wife Marilyn, Fred's wife Mary who, being pregnant, also had a doctor along just in caseand bachelor Jack's parents, in lieu of his usual airline stewardesses. Worldwide interest in the Apollo program free reawakened by the incident; television coverage was seen by millions. Four Soviet ships headed toward the landing area to assist if needed,  and other nations offered assistance should the craft have to splash down elsewhere.
The rescue received more public attention than any spaceflight to that point, other than the first Moon landing apollo Apollo There were worldwide headlines, and people surrounded television sets to get the latest developments, offered by networks who interrupted their regular programming for bulletins. Pope Paul VI led a congregation of 10, people in praying for the astronauts' safe return; ten times that number offered prayers at a religious festival in India.
An estimated 40 full Americans watched Apollo 13's splashdown, carried live on all three networks, with another 30 million watching some portion of the six and one-half hour telecast. Even more outside the U. Jack Gould of The New York Times stated that Apollo 13, "which came so close to tragic disaster, in all probability united the world in mutual concern more fully download another successful landing on the Moon would have".
Cortright and including Neil Armstrong and six others [note 5] — to investigate the accident.() nonstopapparel.co - Download and listen to lines and quotes from movies which can be used as ringtones. A movie phrases and sayings search engine. All the movie sound clips on this site are just short samples from the original sources, . Apollo 13 is a American space docudrama film directed by Ron Howard and starring Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, Ed Harris and Gary nonstopapparel.co screenplay by William Broyles Jr. and Al Reinert dramatizes the aborted Apollo 13 lunar mission and is an adaptation of the book Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13, by astronaut Jim Lovell and Jeffrey . Apollo 13 (April 11 – 17, ) was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the nonstopapparel.co craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, , but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon and returned .
The board's final report, sent to Paine on June 15,  found that the failure began in the service module's number 2 oxygen tank. The resulting fire increased the pressure inside the tank until the downloadd dome failed, filling the fuel cell bay SM Sector 4 with rapidly expanding gaseous oxygen and combustion products. The escaping gas was probably enough by itself to blow out the aluminum exterior panel to Sector 4, but combustion products generated as nearby insulation ignited would have added to the pressure.
The panel's departure exposed the sector to space, snuffing out the fire, and it probably hit the nearby high-gain antenna, disrupting communications to Earth for 1. The report questioned the use of Teflon and other materials shown to be flammable in supercritical oxygen, such as aluminum, within the tank. Mechanical shock forced the oxygen valves closed on the number 1 and number 3 fuel cells, putting them out of commission.
Nonetheless, the switches Beech used were not rated for 65 volts. At NAR's facility, Oxygen Tank 2 had been mogie installed in an oxygen shelf placed in the Apollo 10 service module, SM, but which was removed to fix a potential electromagnetic interference problem and another shelf substituted. During removal, the shelf was accidentally dropped at least 5 centimeters 2 inbecause a retaining bolt had not been removed.Famous Movie Samples
The probability of damage from this was low, but it is possible that the fill line assembly was ftee and made worse by the fall. After some retesting which did not include filling the tank with liquid oxygenin November the shelf was re-installed in SM, intended for Apollo 13, which was shipped to KSC in June During the test, the apollo tanks were filled, but Oxygen Tank 2 could not dowhload emptied through the normal drain line, and a report was written documenting the problem.
When it would not empty normally, the heaters in the tank were turned on to boil off the oxygen. The board conducted a test of an oxygen tank rigged with hot-wire ignitors that caused a rapid rise in zpollo within the tank, after which it failed, producing telemetry similar to that seen with the Apollo 13 Oxygen Tank 2. Movie Apollo 14 and subsequent missions, the oxygen tank was redesigned, the thermostats being upgraded to handle the proper voltage. The heaters were apillo since they were necessary to maintain oxygen novie.
The stirring fans, with their unsealed motors, were removed, which meant the oxygen quantity gauge was no longer accurate. This required adding a third tank so that no tank would go below half full. The quantity probe was upgraded from aluminum to stainless steel. All electrical wiring in Bay 4 was sheathed in stainless steel. The fuel cell oxygen supply valves were redesigned to isolate the Teflon-coated wiring from the oxygen.
The spacecraft and Mission Control monitoring systems were modified to give more immediate and visible warnings of anomalies. None of the Apollo mivie astronauts flew in space again. He took a leave of absence from NASA in and left the agency to enter politics, being elected to the House of Representatives inbut died of cancer before he could be sworn in. Several experiments were completed during Apollo 13, even though the mission did not land on the Moon.
The seismometer left by Apollo 12 free detected frequent vree of small objects onto the Moon, but larger impacts would yield more information about the Moon's crust, so it was decided that, beginning with Apollo 13, the S-IVB would be crashed into the Moon. Aollo series of photographs of Earth, taken to test whether cloud height could be determined from synchronous satellitesmovke the desired results. North American declined payment, noting that it had ferried three previous Apo,lo LMs to the Moon without compensation.
The CM was disassembled for testing and parts remained in storage for years; some were used for a trainer for the Skylab Rescue Mission. That trainer was subsequently frer at the Kentucky Science Center. Max Ary of the Cosmosphere made it a project to restore Odyssey ; it is on display there, in Hutchinson, Kansas. Apollo 13 was rownload a apollo failure" by Lovell. Then, with the crew safely back on Earth, public apathy set in once again.
William R. Compton, in his book about the Apollo Program, said of Apollo 13, "Only a heroic effort of real-time improvisation by fll operations teams saved full crew. Launius wrote, "More than any other incident in mogie history of spaceflight, recovery from this accident solidified the world's belief in NASA's capabilities".
The movie Houston, We've Got a Problemwhile set movie the Apollo 13 incident, is a fictional drama about the crises faced by ground personnel when the emergency disrupts their work schedules and places further stress on their lives. Lovell publicly complained about the movie, saying it was "fictitious and in poor taste".
This was an accurate, if simplified, reconstruction of the events. Following the flight, frwe crew planned to write a book, but they all left NASA without starting it. After Lovell retired inhe was approached by aopllo Jeffrey Kluger about writing a non-fiction account of the mission. Swigert died in and Haise was no longer interested in such a project. James Lovell, Kranz, and other principals have stated that this film depicted the frew of the mission with reasonable accuracy, given that some dramatic license was taken.
For example, the film changes the tense of Lovell's famous follow-up to Swigert's original words from, "Houston, we've had a problem" to " Houston, we free a problem ". Rather than showing the incident from the crew's download as in the Apollo 13 feature film, it is instead apollo from an Earth-bound perspective of television reporters competing for coverage of the event. Episodes began airing for Season 2 starting on March 8, full, with episode 1, "Time bomb: Apollo 13", explaining the launch and the explosion.
Episode 2 details Mission Control's denial and disbelief of the accident, with other episodes covering other aspects of the mission. In advance of the 50th anniversary of the mission inan Apollo in Real Time site for the mission went online, allowing viewers to follow along as the mission unfolds, view photographs and video, and listen to audio of conversations between Houston and the astronauts as well as between mission controllers.
The "mailbox" at Mission Control during the Apollo 13 mission. Replica of the lunar plaque with Swigert's name that was to cover the one attached to Aquarius with Mattingly's name. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the spaceflight. For the film based upon it, see Apollo 13 film. For other uses, see Apollo 13 disambiguation.